Do you know metal titanium?
Titanium is a transition metal, people have been thinking of it as a rare metal for some time in the past. Since the 1940s, titanium and its compounds have been widely used in aircraft, rockets, missiles, satellites, spacecraft, warships, military, medical and petrochemical industries. Because of its high melting point, high hardness, and strong plasticity, Low density, corrosion resistance and other advantages. Titanium looks like steel, with silver gray light. Titanium has a high strength and the titanium alloy has a tensile strength of 180kg/mm3. The characteristics of titanium are low density (4.51g/cm3), high hardness, high melting point (1675°C), high purity titanium has good plasticity, but becomes brittle and hard when impurities are present. At room temperature, titanium does not react with chlorine, dilute sulfuric acid, dilute hydrochloric acid, and nitric acid, but it can be attacked by hydrofluoric acid, phosphoric acid, or molten alkali. Titanium is easily dissolved in H2SO4. The most prominent property of titanium is its strong corrosion resistance to seawater. Titanium accounts for approximately 0.42% of the total weight in the earth's crust, ranking seventh in the metal world and up to 70 types of minerals containing titanium. At present, the use of titanium has developed rapidly and has been widely used in aircraft, rockets, missiles, satellites, spacecraft, warships, military, light industry, chemical, textile, medical and petrochemical industries.
Very fine titanium powder is a good fuel for rockets. The corrosion resistance of titanium is 15 times stronger than that of common stainless steel, and its service life is more than 10 times longer than that of stainless steel.
The application of titanium in surgical operations is also very compelling. At present, the surgical bone is made of stainless steel. The disadvantage of using stainless steel is that after the bone is healed, it is necessary to remove the stainless steel sheet. This is a very painful thing. Otherwise, stainless steel will cause harm to human body due to rust. If the use of titanium "artificial bones" will make orthopedic technology completely change. In the place where the head is hurted, with titanium and titanium screws, after a few months, the bones will re-grow in the holes and screws of the titanium plate. The new muscle fiber will be wrapped on the titanium plate. The titanium skeleton is like a real one. The bones are associated with flesh and blood, and they play a supporting and reinforcing role. Therefore, titanium has been praised as a "biophile element." Now it has begun to be applied to knees, shoulder joints, rib joints, craniums, active heart valves, and bone fixation clips.
In the steelmaking industry, a small amount of titanium is a good deoxidizer, nitrogen removal and sulfur removal agent. Titanium dioxide is a precious white pigment called titanium white. Titanium has both lead white masking properties and long lasting properties of zinc white. It is one of the whitest substances in the world, and titanium dioxide is non-toxic. There are hundreds of thousands of tons of titanium dioxide used as pigments each year. Due to its high melting point, titanium dioxide is often used to make fire-resistant glass, glazes, enamels, clays, and high-temperature laboratory vessels. The titanium tetrachloride emits large amounts of white smoke in humid air. Because of its characteristics, it is commonly used as an artificial aerosol in the military. Especially in the ocean, there are many vapors and titanium tetrachloride. The smoke is like a white wall, blocking the enemy’s sight.
Barium titanate crystals are widely used in ultrasonic instruments and underwater detectors. This is due to the fact that when there is pressure to change the shape, current will be generated. Once it is energized, it will change shape. When barium titanate is placed in an ultrasonic wave, it is pressurized to generate a current. The magnitude of the current generated by it can be used to measure the strength of the ultrasonic wave. Conversely, high-frequency current can be used to generate ultrasonic waves.
In golden-decorated handicrafts and daily necessities, they cannot be durable due to their low hardness, easy puncture and wear. When titanium nitride is plated on the surface of these materials, the appearance is almost exactly the same as that of gold plating, and it is more wear-resistant than gold and hard alloy. This kind of plating is praised as having “never wearability”.
The organic titanium polymers can be used as surfactants, dispersants, water repellents or rust inhibitors.
Of the four series of hydrogen storage metals currently used by humans, titanium is one of them, and it is also a relatively cheap one. However, humans have not yet found a more ideal “hydrogen storage metal”. Once this problem is solved, people will Hydrogen can be used as fuel.
"Titanium Aircraft" can reduce body weight by 5 tons and carry more than 100 passengers. In the new type of jet engine, titanium alloys have accounted for 18 to 25% of the total weight of the engine; in the latest supersonic aircraft, the use of titanium accounts for almost 95% of the total weight of the entire body structure, so if there is no titanium alloy It is difficult to develop the current supersonic aircraft.
Submarines made of titanium are not only more durable than steel submarines, but they can also be submerged in even greater depths. The titanium submarines can dive below 4,500 meters, which is an insurmountable limit for steel submarines. Titanium could manufacture warships and ships without painting coated, and it will not rust in the sea for years. Since titanium is not a ferromagnetic substance, it will not be discovered by magnetic mines. This is particularly important in the military. If there is no heat-resistant steel made of titanium, the lifespan of currently used conventional weapons rifles and machine guns will only be the original 4.5 seconds.
With the strong absorption of air by titanium and zirconium, air can be removed and a vacuum created. With a vacuum pump made of titanium-zirconium alloy, the air can be pumped to only left one part in one billion.
The Titanium-niobium alloys are ideal superconducting materials. Tsinghua University made use of the principle of optical interference and ionized titanium nitride to create a picture with clear and structured mountains and rivers.
Among the two most commonly used stainless steels currently used, chromium-nickel-titanium 18-8-1 type (containing 18% of chromium, 8% of nickel, and 1% of titanium) is the most commonly used in the industry. Titanium carbide (TiC) resembles iron carbide with metallic luster. It has a higher melting point and higher hardness than iron carbide. Therefore, it has practical application value. The foods preserved in titanium vessels are last a long time in color, smell and taste, the titanium cooking utensils are both lightweight and rustless, making them most scientific and sanitary. A high-pressure vessel made of titanium alloy can withstand a high pressure of 2500 atmospheres.
An alloy composed of titanium and nickel is called "memory alloy." The alloy is made into a predetermined shape, and after shaping treatment, if it is deformed by an external force, the original appearance can be restored as long as it is slightly heated. This alloy is currently used in many fields. For example, the antenna used on the US spacecraft Apollo is such a memory alloy; the Ninth People’s Hospital of Shanghai No. 1 Medical College has used this memory alloy in female sterilization; it can also be used in instruments, electronic devices and other fields.
Now, the biggest obstacle to the widespread use of titanium is that titanium is difficult to melt. Because the melting point of titanium is very high, the smelting of titanium takes place at a higher temperature, and the chemical properties of titanium become lively at high temperatures. Therefore, the smelting should be carried out under the protection of an inert gas, and the oxygen-containing material must not be used. This puts high demands on smelting equipment and processes. At present, about 70% of the smelted titanium is used in the manufacture of aircrafts, missiles, spacecraft, and artificial satellites.
At present, the application of titanium to humans is only a good beginning. The future of titanium metal is immeasurable, so titanium has been awarded the title of “metal in the 21st century”.